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Hypertension in children and adolescents : new perspectives by Empar Lurbe (editor), Elke Wühl (editor) 2019

Hypertension in children and adolescents : new perspectives

Details Of The Book

Hypertension in children and adolescents : new perspectives

serie: Updates in hypertension and cardiovascular protection 
ISBN : 9783030181673, 3030181685 
publisher: Springer 
publish year: 2019 
pages: 281 
language: English 
ebook format : PDF (It will be converted to PDF, EPUB OR AZW3 if requested by the user) 
file size: 3 MB 

price : $13.77 17 With 19% OFF

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Abstract Of The Book

Table Of Contents

1: From Pregnancy to Childhood and Adulthood: The Trajectory of Hypertension
	1.1	 Undernutrition and Cardiovascular Disease
	1.2	 Overnutrition, Catch Up Growth and Cardiovascular Disease
	1.3	 Birth Size, Birth Weight and Blood Pressure
	1.4	 Size During Childhood—Risk Factors from Conception to Early Life for Obesity
	1.5	 Parent-Offspring Birth Cohort Studies—Associations of Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Gestational Weight Gain with Blood Pressure
	1.6	 Birth Cohort “Trajectory” Studies
	1.7	 Summary
2: The Contributions of Perinatal Programming to Blood Pressure Levels in Childhood and Beyond
	2.1	 Introduction
	2.2	 Epidemiology—Low Birth Weight and Subsequent Blood Pressure
		2.2.1	 Ethnicity, Gender and Geography
		2.2.2	 Prematurity and Subsequent Blood Pressure Levels
		2.2.3	 Postnatal Growth and Its Effect on Blood Pressure
		2.2.4	 Postnatal Growth and Its Effect on Programming
		2.2.5	 The Scope of Programming Effect on Blood Pressure
		2.2.6	 Follow-Up of Premature Infants
		2.2.7	 Mechanisms Contributing to Programming
		2.2.8	 Epigenetic Modifications
		2.2.9	 Glucocorticoids and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis
		2.2.10	 The Role of Oxidative Stress in Perinatal Programming
		2.2.11	 Renal Nerves
		2.2.12	 The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
		2.2.13	 Other Intrarenal Factors
		2.2.14	 Management
	2.3	 Summary
3: Worldwide Prevalence of Childhood Hypertension
	3.1	 Introduction
	3.2	 Prevalence of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents
	3.3	 Trends in Blood Pressure Level and the Prevalence of Childhood Hypertension
	3.4	 Effect of Diagnostic Strategies on Hypertension Prevalence
	3.5	 Trends in Definition of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents
	3.6	 Conclusions
4: Office and Out of Office Blood Pressure Measurements
	4.1	 Introduction
	4.2	 Office Blood Pressure
		4.2.1	 Methodology
		4.2.2	 Definition and Normative Values
	4.3	 Out of Office BP Measurements
		4.3.1	 Home Blood Pressure	 Methodology	 Definition and Normative Data
		4.3.2	 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring	 Methodology	 Interpretation of ABPM
	4.4	 Discrepancies Between Office and Out of Office BP Measurements
		4.4.1	 White Coat Hypertension
		4.4.2	 Masked Hypertension
		4.4.3	 Out of Office BP Measurements and Target Organ Damage
		4.4.4	 Out of Office BP Measurement in Clinical Practice
	4.5	 Conclusions
5: Large Vessels in Hypertension: Central Blood Pressure
	5.1	 Introduction
	5.2	 Arterial Stiffness as a Cause of Incident Hypertension: Hemodynamic Evidences
	5.3	 Hemodynamic and Biomechanical Approach of the Arterial Stiffness-BP Relationship
	5.4	 Measurement of Arterial Stiffness and Central Blood Pressure
	5.5	 Early Vascular Aging, Arterial Stiffness, and Early Phase of Hypertension
	5.6	 Metabolic Syndrome, Arterial Stiffness, and High-Normal BP in Children
		5.6.1	 Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness
		5.6.2	 Metabolic Syndrome and Arterial Stiffness
		5.6.3	 Early Interventions to Reduce Arterial Stiffness and High-Normal BP
	5.7	 Conclusion
6: Isolated Systolic Hypertension in the Young
	6.1	 Introduction
	6.2	 Prevalence
	6.3	 Pathogenesis
	6.4	 Aortic BP and the Concept of Spurious HTN
	6.5	 Clinical Relevance
	6.6	 Clinical Workup: The Value of Ambulatory BP Monitoring
	6.7	 The Challenge of Management
	6.8	 Conclusions
7: Primary Hypertension
	7.1	 Introduction
	7.2	 Prevalence of PH
	7.3	 Differences Between Normative Values in Children
	7.4	 Pathogenesis of PH
	7.5	 Altered Body Composition
	7.6	 Hemodynamic Phenotype: Sympathetic Nervous System Activation
	7.7	 Biochemical Abnormalities
	7.8	 Salt Intake and Obesity
	7.9	 Immunological Abnormalities
	7.10	 Family History
	7.11	 Accelerated Biological Maturation
	7.12	 Severity of Primary HTN
	7.13	 Target Organ Damage in Children with Primary Hypertension
	7.14	 Reversibility of TOD
	7.15	 Management of PH in Children and Adolescents
	7.16	 Conclusions
8: Causes of Secondary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents
	8.1	 Introduction
	8.2	 Causes of Secondary Hypertension and Prevalence in Age Groups
	8.3	 Renal Parenchymal Disease
		8.3.1	 CAKUT
		8.3.2	 Glomerulonephritis
		8.3.3	 Polycystic Kidney Disease
		8.3.4	 Hypertension After Severe Acute Renal Disease
		8.3.5	 Hypertension Associated with Chronic Renal Failure
	8.4	 Renovascular Disease
		8.4.1	 Prevalence
		8.4.2	 Distribution
		8.4.3	 Causes
		8.4.4	 Presentation
		8.4.5	 Diagnosis	 Doppler US	 CTA and MRA	 DSA
		8.4.6	 Treatment Overview
		8.4.7	 Mid-Aortic Syndrome (MAS)
	8.5	 Cardiac Disease
		8.5.1	 Coarctation of the Aorta (CoA)
	8.6	 Endocrine Causes
		8.6.1	 Catecholamine Related	 Introduction	 Genetics	 Presentation	 Diagnosis	 Blood Pressure Control During Surgery	 Long-Term Follow-Up
		8.6.2	 Corticosteroid Related
	8.7	 Respiratory Disease
		8.7.1	 Chronic Neonatal Lung Disease
		8.7.2	 Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)
	8.8	 Medications
	8.9	 Monogenic Disorders
	8.10	 Cerebral Disease
9: Monogenic Hypertension
	9.1	 Basic Mechanisms of Sodium Excretion and Reabsorption: The Role of Distal Tubule
	9.2	 Intracellular Transport of Sodium from the Tubular Lumen
	9.3	 Monogenic Hypertension Caused by Disorders of the Distal Tubule
		9.3.1	 Liddle Syndrome (OMIM #177200, Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1, Autosomal Dominant, PHA1B)
		9.3.2	 Activating Mutation of Mineralocorticoid Receptor (OMIM #605115; Hypertension, Early Onset; Autosomal Dominant, with Severe Exacerbation in Pregnancy)
		9.3.3	 Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (AME) Syndrome (OMIM #218030)
		9.3.4	 Familial Hypertension with Hyperkalemia (Gordon Syndrome, Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 2 [PHA2]; OMIM #145260, Unknown Genetic Cause; OMIM #614491, WNK4 Gene; OMIM #614492, WNK1 Gene; OMIM #614495, Gene KLHL3; OMIM #614496, CUL3 Gene)
	9.4	 Monogenic Hypertension Caused by Disorders of the Adrenal Glands
		9.4.1	 Inherited Defect of Adrenal Steroidogenesis: Deficiency of 11β- and 17α-Steroid-Hydroxylases
		9.4.2	 Primary Aldosteronism and Familial Forms of Hyperaldosteronism
		9.4.3	 Familial Hyperaldosteronism Type 1 (OMIM #103900, FH1, Glucocorticoid Remediable Aldosteronism [GRA])
		9.4.4	 Familial Hyperaldosteronism Type 2 (OMIM #605635, FH2)
		9.4.5	 Familial Hyperaldosteronism Type 3 (OMIM #613677, FH3)
		9.4.6	 Familial Hyperaldosteronism Type 4 (OMIM #617027, FH4)
		9.4.7	 Primary Aldosteronism with Seizures and Neurological Abnormalities (OMIM #615474, PASNA Syndrome)
		9.4.8	 Familial Resistance to Glucocorticoids (OMIM #615962, GCCR, Chrousos Syndrome)
	9.5	 Monogenic Hypertension Not Related to Sodium and Independent of Mineralocorticoid Effect
		9.5.1	 Autosomal Dominant Brachydactyly with Arterial Hypertension (OMIM #112410; HTNB)
10: Neonatal Hypertension
	10.1	 Introduction
	10.2	 Definition of Neonatal Hypertension
		10.2.1	 Determinants of Neonatal Blood Pressure
		10.2.2	 Additional Influences on Neonatal Blood Pressure
		10.2.3	 Definition and Normative Data
	10.3	 Incidence of Neonatal Hypertension
	10.4	 Differential Diagnosis of Neonatal HTN
	10.5	 Diagnostic Evaluation
		10.5.1	 Blood Pressure Measurement
		10.5.2	 History and Physical Examination
		10.5.3	 Diagnostic Studies
	10.6	 Clinical Presentations of Neonatal Hypertension
	10.7	 Treatment of the Hypertensive Neonate
		10.7.1	 Acute Severe Hypertension
		10.7.2	 Mild-to-Moderate Hypertension
		10.7.3	 Surgically Correctable Hypertension
	10.8	 Outcome of Neonatal Hypertension
		10.8.1	 Infancy
		10.8.2	 Childhood and Adulthood
	10.9	 Conclusions
11: The Heart in Childhood Hypertension
	11.1	 Introduction
	11.2	 Epidemiology of Hypertensive Heart Disease
	11.3	 Pathophysiology of Hypertensive Heart Disease
	11.4	 Diagnosing Hypertensive Heart Disease During Childhood
		11.4.1	 Electrocardiogram
		11.4.2	 Echocardiography	 Left Ventricular Hypertrophy	 Diastolic Dysfunction
		11.4.3	 Other Imaging Modalities to Diagnose Hypertensive Heart Disease
		11.4.4	 Biomarkers
		11.4.5	 Endomyocardial Biopsy
	11.5	 Treatment and Monitoring of Hypertensive Heart Disease in Children and Adolescents
12: The Kidney in Hypertension
	12.1	 Introduction
		12.1.1	 The Role of the Kidney in the Regulation of Blood Pressure
	12.2	 Mechanisms of Blood Pressure Regulation
		12.2.1	 Blood Volume Homeostasis by Pressure Natriuresis
		12.2.2	 The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
		12.2.3	 Renalase
		12.2.4	 Arginine Vasopressin
		12.2.5	 Kallikrein-Kinin System
		12.2.6	 Nitric Oxide
		12.2.7	 Endothelins
		12.2.8	 Natriuretic Peptides
	12.3	 Hypertension and the Kidneys
		12.3.1	 Hypertensive Kidney Damage
		12.3.2	 Hypertension and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
		12.3.3	 Pathomechanisms of Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease
		12.3.4	 Modifying Factors
	12.4	 Hypertension in Other Renal Conditions
		12.4.1	 Acute Glomerular Disease
		12.4.2	 Vascular Disease
		12.4.3	 Hypertension in Proteinuric Kidney Disease
	12.5	 Summary
13: Non-pharmacological Treatment of Hypertension
	13.1	 Decrease of Body Weight and Increase of Physical Activity
	13.2	 Reduction of Salt Intake
	13.3	 DASH and Other Type of Diets
	13.4	 Other Factors: Sugar, Tobacco, Motivational Interviewing, and Stress Reduction
	13.5	 Summary
14: Physical Exercise in the Treatment of Obesity and Hypertension: New Approach to Individualize Treatment
	14.1	 Introduction
	14.2	 Obesity and Hypertension
	14.3	 Lifestyle Treatment Approach
	14.4	 Physical Activity and Physical Fitness
		14.4.1	 Physical Activity
		14.4.2	 Physical Fitness
	14.5	 Physical Activity and Adiposity
	14.6	 Physical Fitness and Adiposity
	14.7	 Conclusions
15: Treatment of Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease
	15.1	 Introduction
	15.2	 Underlying Disorders in Renal Hypertension
		15.2.1	 Renoparenchymal Disease
		15.2.2	 Renovascular Disease
		15.2.3	 Hypertension and Progression of Chronic Renal Failure
	15.3	 Antihypertensive Treatment Strategies in CKD
		15.3.1	 Blood Pressure Target
		15.3.2	 Choice of Antihypertensive Drugs
		15.3.3	 Timing of Medication Dosing
		15.3.4	 Potential Novel Treatment Strategies
		15.3.5	 Non-Pharmacological Treatment of Renal Hypertension
		15.3.6	 Treatment of Hypertension in Patients on Renal Replacement Therapy	 Dialysis Patients	 Post–Renal Transplant Patients
	15.4	 Conclusions
16: Long Term Follow-Up
	16.1	 Introduction
	16.2	 Follow-Up in Children with Different Stages of Hypertension
	16.3	 Follow-Up in Children with Different Clinical Setting
	16.4	 Follow-up After Reduction or Withdrawal of Antihypertensive Drugs
17: Evidences from Clinical Trials and Use of Antihypertensive Drugs in Children and Adolescents
	17.1	 Introduction
	17.2	 The Challenge of Clinical Trials
	17.3	 Past and Present Clinical Trials
	17.4	 Antihypertensive Drugs
	17.5	 Conclusions

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