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edition: 3 Authors: Leander W. Matsch, J. Derald Morgan serie: Harper & Row Power & Machinery Series ISBN : 9780060442712 publisher: Harper & Row publish year: 1986 pages: 601 language: English ebook format : PDF (It will be converted to PDF, EPUB OR AZW3 if requested by the user) file size: 33 MB

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Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Power Circuits 1-1 Phasor Diagrams 1-2 AC Circuit Relationships 1-2.1 Single-Subscript Notation 1-2.2 Double-Subscript Notation 1-3 Three-Phase Circuits 1-3.1 Delta-Connected Impedances 1-3.2 Balanced Delta-Connected Load 1-3.3 Wye-Connected Impedances 1-3.4 Three-Wire, Wye-Arrangement (Neutral Connection Open) 1-3.5 Balanced Wye-Connected Load 1-3.6 Four-Wire Arrangement (Load Neutral Connected to Source Neutral) 1-3.7 Phase Sequence 1-4 Complex Power 1-4.1 Power Triangle 1-4.2 Power Flow 1-4.3 Power in Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 1-5 Per-Unit Quantities Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 2: Energy Conversion 2-1 Force in a Capacitor 2-2 The Toroid 2-3 Series and Parallel Magnetic Circuits 2-4 Magnetic Materials 2-5 Iron and Air 2-5.1 Magnetic Leakage and Fringing 2-5.2 Graphical Analysis 2-5.3 Core Losses Hysteresis Loop Hysteresis Loss Reentrant Loop Rotational Hysteresis Loss Maximum Flux Density under Sinusoidal Excitation Eddy-Current Loss High-Frequency Magnetic Materials 2-6 Flux Linkage and Equivalent Flux 2-6.1 Energy Stored in Magnetic Circuits 2-6.2 Self-Inductance 2-6.3 Mutual Inductance Coefficient of Coupling 2-7 Magnetic Force 2-7.1 Force and Torque in Singly Excited Magnetic Circuits 2-7.2 Force and Torque in Multiply Excited Magnetic Circuits 2-7.3 Force and Energy in Nonlinear Magnetic Circuits Energy Relations in Nonlinear Magnetic Circuits 2-8 Permanent Magnets 2-8.1 Operating Characteristics of Permanent Magnets 2-8.2 Energy Product 2-8.3 Square-Loop Ferrites Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 3: The Transformer 3-1 The Two-Winding Transformer 3-2 The Ideal Two-Winding Transformer 3-2.1 Voltage Ratio and Transformer Polarity 3-2.2 Current Ratio 3-2.3 Impedance Ratio 3-3 Exciting Current, Core-Loss Current and Magnetizing Current 3-3.1 Core-Loss Current 3-3.2 Magnetizing Current 3-3.3 Waveform of Exciting Current 3-3.4 Core-Loss Current 3-3.5 Magnetizing Current, Including Harmonics 3-4 Leakage Impedance 3-4.1 The Equivalent Circuit 3-4.2 The Approximate Equivalent Circuit 3-5 Coupled-Circuit Equations 3-5.1 Leakage Inductance 3-5.2 Magnetizing Inductance 3-5.3 Coefficient of Coupling 3-6 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests, Exciting Admittance, and Equivalent Impedance 3-7 Transformer Losses and Efficiency 3-8 Voltage Regulation 3-9 Autotransformers 3-10 Instrument Transformers 3-11 Three-Phase Transformer Connections 3-11.1 Delta-Delta Connection 3-11.2 Wye-Wye Connection 3-11.3 Wye-Delta Connection 3-11.4 Open-Delta or V-V Connection 3-11.5 Three-Phase Transformers 3-11.6 Three-to-Six-Phase Transformation 3-12 Per-Unit Quantities of Transformers 3-13 Multicircuit Transformers 3-13.1 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests 3-14 Third Harmonics in Three-Phase Transformer Operation 3-15 Current Inrush 3-16 Reactors 3-16.1 Volume of Air Gap 3-16.2 Rating of Reactors and Transformers Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 4: Synchronous Machines 4-1 Introduction 4-2 Waveform 4-3 AC Armature Windings 4-4 Induced Armature Voltage 4-4.1 Voltage Induced in a Generator Armature Coil 4-4.2 Voltage Induced in a Distributed Winding 4-4.3 Pitch Factor and Breadth Factor for Harmonics 4-5 Armature MMF 4-5.1 Fundamental Component of mmf Space Wave 4-5.2 Angular Displacement between mmf Waves 4-6 Unsaturated Inductances of a Cylindrical-Rotor Machine 4-6.1 Inductance of the Field 4-6.2 Magnetizing Inductance (Inductance of Armature Reaction) 4-6.3 Self- and Mutual-Inductance Components of Magnetizing Inductance in Three-Phase Windings 4-7 Phasor Diagram of Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator 4-7.1 Leakage Flux 4-7.2 Synchronous Reactance 4-7.3 Equivalent Circuit 4-7.4 Current-Source Representation 4-8 Idealized Three-Phase Generator—General Relationship in Terms of Inductances 4-9 Generator Delivering Balanced Load 4-10 Torque 4-11 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests 4-11.1 Open-Circuit Characteristic 4-11.2 Short-Circuit Test 4-11.3 Unsaturated Synchronous Impedance 4-11.4 Approximation of the Saturated Synchronous Reactance 4-12 Voltage Regulation 4-13 Short-Circuit Ratio 4-14 Real and Reactive Power versus Power Angle 4-15 Synchronous-Motor V Curves 4-16 Excitation Systems for Synchronous Machines 4-16.1 Brushless Excitation System 4-17 Direct-Axis and Quadrature-Axis Synchronous Reactance in Salient-Pole Machines—Two-Reactance Theory 4-18 Zero-Power-Factor Characteristic and Potier Triangle 4-18.1 Graphical Determination of the Potier Triangle 4-18.2 Potier Reactance 4-19 Use of Potier Reactance to Account for Saturation 4-19.1 Saturation-Factor Method 4-20 Slip Test for Determining xd and xq 4-21 Torque-Angle Characteristic of Salient-Pole Machines Power Associated with Iq Power Associated with Id Total Complex Power 4-22 Synchronous-Motor Starting 4-23 Features and Application of Synchronous Motors Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 5: The Induction Motor 5-1 The Polyphase Induction Motor 5-2 Magnetizing Reactance and Leakage Reactance 5-2.1 Magnetizing Reactance 5-2.2 Leakage Reactance 5-3 Rotor Current and Slip 5-3.1 Induction Motor Slip 5-3.2 Rotor Current 5-4 Rotor Copper Loss and Slip 5-5 Equivalent Circuit of the Polyphase Wound-Rotor Induction Motor 5-5.1 Approximate Equivalent Circuit with Adjusted Voltage 5-5.2 Mechanical Power and Torque 5-5.3 Phasor Diagram of the Polyphase Wound-Rotor Induction Motor 5-6 Polyphase Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor 5-6.1 Transformation Ratio of the Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor 5-6.2 Double-Squirrel-Cage and Deep-Bar Motors 5-6.3 Equivalent Circuits for Multiple-Cage Polyphase Induction Motors 5-6.4 Skewing 5-7 No-Load and Locked-Rotor Tests No-Load Test Locked-Rotor Test 5-8 Polyphase-Induction Motor-Slip-Torque Relationship Based on Approximate Equivalent Circuit 5-8.1 Starting Torque 5-8.2 Maximum Torque 5-8.3 Influence of Rotor Resistance on Slip 5-8.4 Influence of Reactances on Motor Performance 5-9 Wound-Rotor Motor Starting and Speed Control 5-10 Speed Control of Polyphase Induction Motors 5-10-1 Variable Frequency 5-10.2 Line-Voltage Control 5-11 Applications of Polyphase Induction Motors 5-12 Reduced-Voltage Starting 5-13 Asynchronous Generator 5-14 Single-Phase Induction Motors 5-15 Methods of Starting Single-Phase Induction Motors 5-16 Two-Revolving-Field Theory 5-16.1 Torque 5-16.2 Double-Frequency Torque 5-17 No-Load and Locked-Rotor Tests on the Single-Phase Induction Motor 5-17.1 No-Load Test 5-17.2 Locked-Rotor Test 5-17.3 Winding Resistance Test 5-18 The Capacitor Motor 5-18.1 Equivalent Circuit of the Capacitor Motor Based on the Two-Revolving-Field Theory 5-18.2 Torque Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 6: Direct-Current Machines 6-1 Structural Features of Commutator Machines 6-2 Elementary Machine 6-2.1 Voltage Induced in a Full-Pitch Armature Coil 6-2.2 General EMF Equation for DC Machines 6-3 Armature Windings 6-3.1 Lap Windings 6-3.2 Wave Windings 6-4 Field Excitation 6-5 Armature Reaction—MMF and Flux Components 6-5.1 Effect of Shifting Brushes from Geometric Neutral 6-5.2 Commutating Poles or Interpoles 6-5.3 Compensating Windings 6-5.4 Ratio of Field mmf to Armature mmf 6-5.5 Demagnetization Due to Cross-Magnetizing mmf 6-6 Commutation 6-7 Voltage Buildup in Self-Excited Generators—Critical Field Resistance 6-8 Load Characteristics of Generators 6-8.1 Separately Excited Generator 6-8.2 Self-Excited Shunt Generator 6-8.3 Series Generator 6-8.4 Compound Generator 6-9 Analysis of Steady-State Generator Performance 6-9.1 Self-Excited Shunt Generator 6-9.2 Effect of Speed on Shunt Generator Performance 6-9.3 Series Generator Graphical Analysis 6-9.4 Compound Generator 6-10 Armature Characteristic or Field-Compounding Curve 6-11 Compounding a Generator 6-12 Efficiency and Losses 6-13 Motor Torque 6-14 Speed-Torque Characteristics 6-14.1 Shunt Motor 6-14.2 Series Motor 6-14.3 Compound Motor 6-15 Steady-State Characteristics of the Shunt Motor 6-16 Steady-State Performance Characteristics of the Series Motor 6-17 Compound-Motor Steady-State Performance Characteristics 6-18 Motor Starting 6-19 Dynamic and Regenerative Braking of Motors 6-20 Dynamic Behavior of DC Machines 6-21 Basic Motor Equations 6-22 Linearization for Small-Signal Response 6-23 Phasor Relationships for Small Oscillations 6-24 Variable Armature Voltage, Constant Field Current 6-25 The Separately Excited DC Motor as a Capacitor 6-26 The Separately Excited DC Generator 6-27 Transfer Functions for the Separately Excited Generator 6-28 Control of Output Voltage 6-29 The Ward-Leonard System 6-30 Solid-State Controls for DC Machines 6-31 Basic Similarities in Induction Machines, Synchronous Machines, and DC Machines 6-32 Electromechanical Machines and Device Ratings Voltage Current Speed Frequency Power Temperature Rise Volt-Amperes Service Factor Efficiency Index Other Ratings 6-33 Energy Management and Economic Considerations in Motor Selection 6-33.1 Power Factor vs. Efficiency 6-33.2 Calculating Annual Savings 6-33.3 Higher-Efficiency Payback 6-33.4 Time Value of Money, Present Worth, and Life Cycle 6-33.5 Other Considerations Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 7: System Applications of Synchronous Machines 7-1 Synchronous Generator Supplying an Isolated System 7-2 Parallel Operation of Synchronous Generators 7-2.1 Requirements for Connecting Synchronous Generators in Parallel 7-2.2 Loading a Synchronous Generator 7-2.3 Equal Real-Power Loads and Equal Reactive-Power Loads 7-2.4 Loci for Generated Voltage for Constant Terminal Voltage and Constant Frequency 7-2.5 Locus of Generated Voltage for Constant Real Power and Variable Excitation 7-2.6 Locus of Generated Voltage for Constant Excitation and Variable Real Power 7-3 RMS Current on Three-Phase Short Circuit 7-4 Salient-Pole Generator—General Relationships 7-4.1 Inductances of Salient-Pole Machines 7-4.2 d-Axis, q-Axis, and Zero-Sequence Quantities, Currents in Damper Circuits Negligible 7-5 Instantaneous Three-Phase Short-Circuit Current Before Short Circuit After Short Circuit 7-5.1 Subtransient Reactance 7-6 Time Constants 7-6.1 Direct-Axis Open-Circuit Time Constant, T\'do 7-6.2 Direct-Axis Short-Circuit Transient Time Constant, T\'d 7-6.3 Direct-Axis Short-Circuit Subtransient Time Constant, T\'\'d 7-6.4 Armature Short-Circuit Time Constant, Ta 7-7 Three-Phase Short Circuit from Loaded Conditions 7-8 Transient Stability 7-8.1 Equal-Area Criterion 7-8.2 Transient Stability Limit 7-9 Swing Curves 7-9.1 The Swing Equation 7-9.2 Swing Curves 7-10 Dynamic Stability 7-10.1 Dual Excitation Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 8: Special Machines 8-1 Reluctance Motors 8-1.2 Polyphase Reluctance Motors 8-2 Hysteresis Motor 8-3 Inductor Alternator 8-3.1 Homopolar Type 8-3.2 Heteropolar Type 8-4 Step Motors 8-4.1 Synchronous Inductor-Motor Operation 8-4.2 Stepper Operation 8-4.3 Bifilar Windings 8-5 Ceramic Permanent-Magnet Motors 8-5.1 Motor Characteristics 8-5.2 Applications 8-6 AC Commutator Motors 8-6.1 Single-Phase Series Motor 8-6.2 Universal Motors 8-6.3 Repulsion Motor 8-7 Control Motors 8-7.1 AC Tachometer 8-7.2 Two-Phase Control Motors 8-8 Self-Synchronous Devices 8-8.1 Three-Phase Selsyns 8-8.2 Single-Phase Selsyns 8-8.3 Synchro Control Transformers 8-9 Acyclic Machines 8-9.1 Acyclic Generators 8-9.2 Linear Acyclic Machines—Conduction Pumps 8-9.3 Induction Pumps 8-10 Magnetohydrodynamic Generators 8-10.1 Hall Effect 8-10.2 MHD Steam Power Plants 8-10.3 AC MHD Study Questions Problems Bibliography Chapter 9: Direct Conversion to Electrical Energy 9-1 Fuel Cells 9-2 Thermoelectrics 9-2.1 Maximum Output 9-2.2 Figure of Merit 9-2.3 Maximum Efficiency 9-3 Thermionic Converter 9-3.1 Work Function and Richardson’s Equation 9-3.2 Space Charge 9-3.3 Efficiency 9-3.4 Maximum Output 9-3.5 Applications 9-4 Photovoltaic Generator 9-4.1 Photons 9-4.2 Solar Energy Study Questions Bibliography APPENDIX A: Laplace Transformation A-1 The Laplace Transformation A-2 Transforms of Simple Functions A-2.1 Initial- and Final-Value Theorems Initial-Value Theorem Final-Value Theorem APPENDIX B: Constants and Conversion Factors APPENDIX C: Metadyne, Amplidyne, and Rotary Regulators C-1 Equations for the Metadyne C-1.1 Equations for the Amplidyne C-2 The Amplidyne C-2.1 Steady-State Performance C-3 The Rototrol and the Regulex C-3.1 Constant Motor Speed Control Index

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