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Control Systems Engineering Exam Reference Manual: A Practical Study Guide, Third Edition by Bryon Lewis 2016

Control Systems Engineering Exam Reference Manual: A Practical Study Guide, Third Edition

Details Of The Book

Control Systems Engineering Exam Reference Manual: A Practical Study Guide, Third Edition

edition: 3 
ISBN : 9781941546567 
publisher: ISA 
publish year: 2016 
pages: 677 
language: English 
ebook format : PDF (It will be converted to PDF, EPUB OR AZW3 if requested by the user) 
file size: 77 MB 

price : $15.2 20 With 24% OFF

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You can Download Control Systems Engineering Exam Reference Manual: A Practical Study Guide, Third Edition Book After Make Payment, According to the customer's request, this book can be converted into PDF, EPUB, AZW3 and DJVU formats.

Abstract Of The Book

Table Of Contents

Cover Control Systems Engineer (CSE)
	Notice from the Publisher
	This Reference Manual Covers All Subject Content for the PE/CSE Examination
	Plan Your Study Time
Table of Contents
Introduction to This Study Guide
	About the Author
	People who have contributed to the previous editions of this manual
Tips on How to Use This Study Guide
	Using Thumbnails to Navigate
	Using Bookmarks to Navigate
	Important File Attachments - Open by clicking on the paper clip!
	How to Print this Manual
Welcome to Control Systems Engineering
	Licensing as Professional Engineer / Control Systems Engineer (CSE)
	Why Become a Professional Engineer?
	This is the third edition of this study manual
	The new and expanded sections include:
Recommended Flow Chart of Study for the CSE
	Overview of Recommended Flow Chart of Study for the CSE
Examination General Information
	State Licensing Requirements
	Exam schedule
	Description of Examination
	Exam content
		I.  Measurement
		II.  Signals, Transmission, and Networking
		III.  Final Control Elements
		IV.  Control Systems
		V.  Safety Systems
		VI.  Codes, Standards, Regulations
	Exam Scoring
Reference Materials for the Exam
	Recommended books and materials to take to the exam
	Books and Materials for Testing
	Books for additional study
	Courses for additional study
	ISA Control Systems Engineer (CSE) PE Review
	Industrial Network Training
	Control Systems Engineer (CSE) Supplement Course
	Online Process Plant @ Learn Control Systems.com
Process Measurement Standards and Terminology
	Overview of process measurement, control and calibration
	Process Signal and Calibration Terminology
	Definition of the Range of an Instrument
	Definition of the Span of an Instrument
	Definition of the use of Zero in Instrumentation
	Illustrations of range and span terminology
	Illustrations of measured variable, measured signal, range and span
Applications of Fluid Mechanics in Process Control
	Relationship of pressure and flow
	Applications of the formulas
	Summary of fluid mechanics for process control
Temperature Measurement and Calibration
	Temperature measurement devices and calibration
	Thermocouple - worked examples (how to read the thermocouple tables)
	RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector)
	Installing RTDs and Thermocouples into a process stream
	Typical RTD and thermocouple applications
Pressure Measurement and Calibration
	Pressure measurement and head pressure
	Applying pressure measurement and signals - worked examples
	Differential pressure and meter calibration
	Pressure change in a pipe for a given flow rate
	Pressure change across the flow element for a given flow rate
	Pressure calibration of transmitter
Level Measurement and Calibration
	Applying level measurement and calibration - Worked examples
	Level displacer (Buoyancy)
	Bubbler level measurement
	Density measurement
	Interface level measurement
	Radar and Ultrasonic level measurement
		Time of flight technology
		Ultrasonic level measurement
		Radar (non-contact)
		Guided Wave Radar (GWR)
	Capacitance level measurement
	Radiometric (gamma) level measurement
	Level gauging system in a tank farm
	Calculating the volume in tanks
Flow Measurement and Calibration
	Applying flow measurement devices
	Turndown ratio in a flow meter
	ISA Standard flow meter symbols
	Flow meter applications chart
	Pressure tappings (Impulse Line Taps)
	Orifice tap dimensions and impulse line connections
	Various Types of Flow Meters
	Applying the Bernoulli principle for flow control
	Types of Head Pressure based meters
		Venturi meter
		ISO 5167 Orifice Plate & Orifice plate
		Dall tube
		Pitot-Static tube
		Multi-hole pressure probe
		Cone meters
		Annubar meters (also reference averaging pitot tubes)
	Differential head meter calculations
	Classic fluid mechanics model
		“K” value flow coefficients
	The beta ratio
		Pipe Size Is Important - Remember!
	Standard Flow Measurement Equations
	Spink - Flow Measurement Equation
		The basic Spink equation derived
		The basic Spink equation for liquid
		The basic Spink equation for gas and vapor
		The basic Spink equation for steam
			Applications of the Beta and Spink factors
	Table 3 – The Spink Factor (S)
	ISO 5167 - Flow Measurement Equation
		The expansibility factor
		The discharge coefficient
		The ISO 5167 equation explained
		Solve for the Reynolds number ‘Re’
		Solve for the coefficient ‘C’
		Solve for mass flow rate:
		Solve for volumetric flow rate
		Equation Comparison Summary
	Sizing orifice type devices for flow measurement - worked examples
	Mass flow measurement and control
	Applying mass flow measurement with an orifice - worked example
	Turbine meter applications
		Turbine flow meter - worked example
Weight Measurement and Calibration
	Weight measurement devices and calibration
	Load cells
	Load cells for (flow, level, force) applications in process
Process Analyzers
	Electrical conductivity and ph correction
	How are pH and electrical conductivity measured?
	Control of pH values in processes
		Typical pH correction control scheme
	Control of conductivity
		Instrument specifications and operating parameters
	Common Plant Analyzers
		Boiling Point Analyzers
		Vacuum Distillation Analyzer
		Flash Point Analyzer
		Cloud Point Analyzer
		Freeze Point Analyzer
		Pour Point Analyzer
		Color Analyzer
	Combustion and Analyzers
		Combustion furnace and air-fuel ratio control
		Air-Fuel ratio control utilizing CO and O2  concentrations
		BMS - Burner Management Safety
		OSHA Requirements
		Carbon dioxide (CO2) reading
	Examples of Process Analyzers
	Select the appropriate analyzer and configuration
	Typical Analyzer Piping and Control Schematic
Process Control Valves and Actuators
	Process control valves
	Considerations when sizing a control valve
		Flow Coefficient Cv
		Specific Gravity
		Operating Conditions
	ISA standard valve symbols
	ISA standard pressure regulating valve symbols
	Valve actuators
		ISA standard actuator symbols
	Limit switches on a valve - ISA standard symbol
		Calculating the size of the actuator
		Example actuator sizing
	Split ranging control valves
	Valve positioner applications
		ISA standard valve positioner symbols
		Summary of positioners
		When should a positioner be used?
		Electrical positioners
	Control valve application comparison chart
	Understanding flow with valve characteristics
		What is the ΔP for valve sizing?
		System piping ΔP pressure drops
		Control valve ΔP pressure drop
		Graph of the Inherent valve characteristics (off the shelf)
		Which valve characteristic trim to use?
		Characteristic distortion in valves
		Gain and Rangeability (turndown ratio in valves)
	Proper control valve sizing
		Oversized valves present problems
		Experiment and understand Installed valve characteristics
		Summary of control valve characteristics
	Control Valve Sizing
		The Valve Sizing Equations
		The Basic equation for liquid flow
		The basic equation for gas flow
		The basic equation for steam flow
	Sizing valves for liquid - worked example
	Sizing valves for gas - worked example
	Sizing valves for vapor and steam - worked example
	Sizing valves for two phase flow - worked example
		Two Phase Flow Worked Example
	ΔP Valve Limitations - Very Important!
		Flowing Quantity (the turndown ratio of a valve)
		Joule-Thomson Effect (J-T) – auto refrigeration in valves
		Choked Flow
	Maximum ΔP and Maximum Flow (qmax) in Valves Applications
		Determining qmax (Maximum Flow Rate)
		Determining ΔPmax (the Allowable Sizing Pressure Drop)
		Cavitation in valves
	Check for cavitation and choked flow in a control valves - worked examples
	Fluid Velocities through Control Valves
	Viscosity Correction for Sizing Valves
Pressure Relief Valves and Rupture Disks
	Pressure Relief Valves (PRV) and Pressure Safety Valves (PSV)
		Important Note: (Do Not Throttle Pressure Relief Valves)
		EPA regulations
		Regulation details
		PRD bypass
		Pilot operated safety valve
		Bellow or balanced bellow and diaphragm
		Weight loaded PRV operation
	Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
	API Standards for pressure relieving systems
	CFR Standards for pressure relief required by federal law
		API Standard 2000 – Venting atmospheric and low-pressure storage tanks
		API Standard 2003 – Protection against ignitions from static, lightning, and stray currents
		API Standard 2350 – Overfill protection for storage tanks in petroleum facilities
		API Standard 2510 – Design and construction of LPG installations
		NFPA 30 – Flammable and combustible liquids code
			Important excerpts from NFPA 30 code:
			Chapter 4: Tanks Storage
			Chapter 5: Piping Systems
			Chapter 6: Container and Portable Storage Tanks
			Chapter 7: Operations
		ASME VIII code for sizing relief valves and rupture disks
			Introduction to ASME VIII
			Overview Section VIII - Pressure Vessels
			ASME VIII – Pressure relief requirements
			ASME VIII - Pressure limits in sizing
	Table 5 - ASME standard nozzle orifice data
	ISA pressure relief valve and rupture disc symbols
	Sizing equations for relief valves and rupture disks
		ASME VIII code equations USCS units
		A Note about sonic or choked flow
		Variables for PRV and PSV sizing equations
	Sizing rupture disks - worked examples
	Sizing pressure relief valves - worked examples
Review of Feedback Control Fundamentals
	Compare Open Loop Control to Closed Loop Control
	Open Loop Example – A Mathematical Analysis
	Closed Loop Example – A Mathematical Analysis
	The Transfer Function for the Automobile
Review of Frequency Response Fundamentals
	Electrical Application – A First Order System
	Bode Plot of First Order System
	Calculate the data for the Bode Plot
	Creating a Bode Plot – First Order System using Frequency
	Hydraulic Application – A First Order System
Process Control Theory and Controller Tuning
	Degrees Of Freedom in Process Control Systems
	Controllers and control strategies (models-modes)
	Process Loop Gain (Gp)
	Process Signal Linearization
	Signal Filtering in Process Control
		Appling Signal Filters
		Filter Time Constant and Sample Time
		Example of Filter Time Selection
	DCS/PLC Sample and Scan Time Consideration
		Sampling time
		Time per scan cycle
	Tuning of Process Controllers
		Closed Loop Tuning of the Controller
			Example: Tune Using Ultimate Gain (continuous cycling)
		Open Loop Tuning of the Controller
			Example: Tuning using Process Reaction Curve (Step Response)
	Advanced Tuning Methods for Controllers
		The Integral Criteria Method
		Lambda Tuning Concepts
		Example Reactor Ratio Timing
		IMC Tuning Method
		PID Controller Models
		Trial and Error Tuning Method
		Dead Time and PID Control
	PID Tuning Video - Parameters in Action
	Process Characteristics from the transfer function
	Poles, Zeros and Dampening from the Transfer Function
		Find the Poles from the Function
		Find the Damping from the Function
		Find the Time Constant
		Find the Period
		Find the Time Constant from the Period
		Find Overshoot and Peak Value
	Block Diagram Algebra
	Example of Block Diagram Algebra Reduction
	Nyquist Stability Criterion
	Routh Stability Criterion
	Check for Stability using Routh (Example)
Communications and Industrial Control Networks
	Overview of Corporate and Plant Networks
	Open System Interconnect (OSI) and TCP/IP network layer model
		7 Layers of networking in the OSI model
			Physical (Layer 1)
			Data Link (Layer 2)
			Network (Layer 3)
			Transport (Layer 4)
			Session (Layer 5)
			Presentation (Layer 6)
			Application (Layer 7)
	Cisco Network Certification – IIOT (Industrial Internet of Things) for IT & OT
		The typical network model
		The Network Essentials
	Overview of Industrial Networks
		The most popular industrial networks and their applications are below
		HART Networks
			Traditional HART Network
			A Wired HART Network
			A Wireless HART Network
		PROFIBUS and AS-I Networks
			Reasons for choosing PROFIBUS
			PROFIBUS Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS)
			Use of the OSI Networking Layers
			PROFIBUS/AS-I/PROFINET Certifications:
			Reasons for choosing FOUNDATION FIELDBUS
			H2 or HSE (High Speed Ethernet)
			Typical FOUNDATION Segments
			Use of the OSI Networking Layers
		Rockwell and ODVA (CIP) Networks
			DH485, DH+, RIO
		Modbus Networks
			Traditional Modbus Networks
			Communication and Devices
		Summary - Automation and Process Control Networks
		Plant Facility Monitoring & Control System (FMCS)
		Typical Building Automation Network
		Networked intelligent and smart devices
		PID control in intelligent networked devices
		PROFIBUS Control Blocks
		The Rosemount 333 Tri-Loop to split multiple variable signals
The Application of Digital Logic in Control Systems
	Overview of Digital Logic
	Digital Logic Gate Symbols
	Digital Logic Gate Truth Tables
	ISA Binary Logic
	Relay Ladder Logic
	Standard RLL Symbols
	Sealing Circuits
	Control System Architectures
		DCS Plant Wide Control System Architecture - Networked
		PLC Control System Architecture
		PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) vs PAC (Process Automation Controller)
		Controller Application Function Comparison Chart
		SCADA Control System Architecture
		PLC Programming Languages
			PLC Programming (LD) ladder diagram or (RLL) relay ladder logic
			PLC Programming (ST) structured text
			PLC Programming (FBD) functional block diagram
			PLC Programming (SFC) sequential function chart
		Writing a Program and Developing a HMI for a Small Systems
		RSLogix 5000, ControlLogix PIDE (PID Enhanced) Function Block Diagram
Motor Control and Logic Functions
	Plant Electrical System
	Motor Control Center (MCC)
	Typical MCC Design
		Typical Motor Controller
	How to Control a Motor
		Starter Auxiliary Contacts
		Overload and Fault
	The basic NEMA stop-start station
		Typical Motor Control Schematic
	NEMA and IEC Terminal Designations
		NEMA Standards Publication ICS 19-2002 (R2007)
		Relays and Contacts
		Coil Lettering and Relay Socket Numbers (NEMA & IEC Numbers)
		Standard Symbols
		Standard Symbols (Continued)
		NEMA and IEC Comparisons
		Stop-Start Station Control Circuit Schematic
		Starter Control Circuit Schematic
	Relay Ladder Logic (RLL) and Function Blocks
		RLL and Their Boolean Functions
		Putting Ladder Logic into the PLC
		Example of a Safety System in a PLC
		Safety Logic in the PLC
			Alarming on Sensor Input Failure
		The PLC Logic for Valve and Alarm Monitoring
			Schematic to Programming Languages
The Application of Analog Circuits in Control Systems
	Overview of Analog Signals
		Typical Analog Loop Wiring Diagram
		Simplified signal transmitters that maintain constant flow rate for measurement variable
		Constant Current Loops and Ohm’s Law
		Current Loop Fundamentals
		The 4-20 mA Current Loop
		Using Current to Transmit Transducer Data
			Current Loop Components
			Current Loop System
		Designing a Current Loop System
			Choosing a Power Supply
		Adding More Transducers and Instruments
			Devices in Series
		A typical Current Loop Repeater
		Active and Passive Current Loops
		Sinking and Sourcing Devices
			What is the difference between PNP and NPN?
			PNP Sensor verses NPN Sensor
Overview of Motion Controller Applications
	Motion Control Systems
		The basic architecture of a motion control system contains:
		Stepper Motor
			Closed-Loop Stepper Motor
		Stepper motor advantages
			Linear motion control
			Series vs. parallel connection
		Servo motor systems
			Advanced motion controls
			Position plus velocity system
		Electro-hydraulic Servo System
			Position and pressure/force control
			Position transducers
			Fieldbus interfaces
		Applications of servo systems
	Soft Starter Applications
		How does a soft starter work?
		Benefits of choosing a soft starter
	Variable Frequency Drive
		How does a variable frequency drive work?
		Conversion from AC to DC to AC PWM
		Volts to Hertz Relationship
		Important Note about Low Frequency in VFDs
		VFDs put Noise into the Electrical System
		PID Control with VFD or DC Drive
			Closed loop control with drive electronics
			Block diagram of PID control with feedback operation available on some VFDs
			Drive with built-in PID tension control of web or winding reel operation
Electrical Systems and Power Quality
	Filtering Power and Harmonics
		Harmonic Neutralizing Transformers
		Filtering of a Harmonics in Power Systems
		Passive Filter
		Active Filter
	Proper Grounding Procedures
Emergency Standby Systems
	Article 700 – Emergency Systems
	Article 701 – Legally Required Standby Systems
	Article 702 – Optional Standby Systems
		UPS (uninterruptible power supply)
		UPS and Battery Bank Sizing
			Load Profile Calculation
			Battery Sizing Calculation
			Worked Example – Sizing the Battery Bank
		Backup Generator
	BMCS Implementation (Building Monitoring and Controls System)
Hydraulics and Pneumatics
	Fluid Power Systems
		Hydraulic Systems
		Pneumatic Systems
		Typical Pneumatic System (this type may be found in a manufacturing or chemical plant)
			Mechanical Flow Diagram of a Large Compressor
			Instrumentation Air Header (Fluid Distribution Header or Manifold)
			Pneumatic Schematic of Valve Controller
			I/P Current to Pneumatic Positioner
		Instrument Air Cost - Engineering Economics
		Peak air demand
		Vendor data
		Include Total Demand
		Instrument Air Piping and Cost
	Pipe sizing is just like sizing electrical lines
		Caution Using Charts and Graphs
		Interconnects and headers
		The Target Objectives
		Eliminate the pressure drop
		Air Velocity
		Crunching the Numbers
		Recover Wasted Heat to Save Money
Fluid Power Schematic Symbols
Overview of Conveying Technologies
	Some common types of conveying systems are as follows:
		Heavy Duty Roller Conveyors
		Flexible Conveyors
		Vertical Conveyors and Spiral Conveyors
		Spiral Conveyors
		Vertical conveyor with forks
		Vibrating Conveyors
	Pneumatic and Vacuum Conveyors
		Pneumatic Tube Conveyor Systems
		Large Complex Pneumatic Conveying Systems
			Typical Plant Pneumatic Conveying System
			HMI for Pneumatic Conveying System
			Dilute Phase Systems
			Dense Phase Systems
			Conveying Phase Diagram
			Pressure Distance Relationships
		Vacuum Conveying
			A typical vacuum product transportation system
			Vacuum conveying systems and HMI display
			Vacuum conveying system HMI display
		Blower operating cost of pneumatic systems
		Screw conveying systems
			Screw conveyor instruments
		Mass or bulk flow measurement
			Radiometric measurement for mass flow rate
			Load cell measurement for mass flow rate
		Mass flow control of conveying system
			Radiometric measurement for mass flow rate
			Load Cell (Strain Gauge) measurement for mass flow rate
			Typical scale systems used on manufacturing lines and in plants
Chemical Process Technology and Equipment
	Process Technologies
	Separation Processes
		A Typical Horizontal 3-Phase Separator
	Industrial Distillation
		A Typical Industrial Distillation Process
		A Typical Distillation Unit
	Industrial Furnaces (Fired Heaters)
		Industrial Furnaces
		Fired Heater Control Scheme
	Expansion Tanks and Heat Transfer Fluid
	Vapor Pressure, Boiling and Cavitation in Equipment
		Vaporization in Equipment
		Control Valve Applications
		Pumping Applications
		Video of Vaporization and Cavitation Phenomenon
	Heat Exchangers
		Flow Arrangement
		Shell and Tube Heat exchanger
			Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger
			Phase-change heat exchangers
			Reboiler as seen on a distillation column
		Heat Exchanger BTU Calculation and Control
		Example of how to control the heat exchanger:
	Condenser (heat transfer)
	Evaporation Processes
		What is evaporation?
		What is latent heat?
		What is the boiling point?
	Various types of evaporators and their working principle
		Vertical Falling Film Evaporator
		Horizontal film evaporator
		Low Temperature Vacuum Evaporator
	Using the Psychrometric Chart
	Cooling Towers
		Cooling tower calculations
		Cooling tower water loss and make-up
	Cooling tower control scheme and operating cost
		Typical pH correction system
	Chemical Reactors and Control
		What is a reactor?
		Types of reactors
		Basic control scheme for a reactor
			CSTR (Constant Stirred Tank Reactor)
		Hydrocracking reactor controls
	Chemical Scrubbers
		Wet exhaust gas cleaning
		Wet gas scrubber
		Dry scrubbing
		Scrubber waste products
		Bacteria spread
	Dehydration Processes
	Joule-Thompson effect
	Crystallization Technology
		Static Crystallization
		Falling Film Crystallization
		Suspension Crystallization
		Process flow diagram suspension crystallization
		Freeze Concentration
		Overview of a small crystallization plant to control
	Flare and Vent Disposal Systems
		Types of flares
		Flare Control Systems
	Quality Control Standards for Production of Products
ISA Standards for Documentation
	ISA Instrument or Function Symbol
	ISA Line Type Symbols
	Standard line types:
	ISA Identification Letters
	ISA P&ID Identification (Controllers & Readouts)
	ISA P&ID Identification (Transmitters, Switches & Alarms)
	ISA P&ID Identification (Compute, Relay & Elements)
	Piping and Equipment Symbols
	Standard P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation Diagram)
		P&ID Sample 1 (Functions)
		P&ID Sample 2 (Alarms)
		P&ID Sample 3 (Separator)
		EM (equipment modules) as in ISA S88 standard
		Cross limiting control of furnace
		Simplified P&ID Sample 1
		Simplified P&ID Sample 2
	ISA Standard PFD (Piping Flow Diagram) or MFD (Mechanical Flow Diagram)
		PFD (Piping Flow Diagram) Sample 1
	BFD (Block Flow Diagram)
		BFD Sample 1
		BFD Sample 2
	ISA Standard Loop Diagram
	Instrument Location and Elevation Plan Drawing
	Instrument Index Sheet
	DCS or PLC I/O List (a list of inputs and outputs with tags and calibration data)
	ISA Standard (HMI) Graphical Display Symbols & Designations
		HMI Sample 1
		HMI Sample 2
	NFPA 79 Colors for Graphical Displays (Industrial Machinery)
	Battery Limits of the Plant
Overview of Safety Instrumented Systems
	Overview of process safety and shutdown
		SIS (Safety Instrumented Systems)
		Complying with IEC 61511 / ISA 84
		Other codes related to SIS systems
	ISA and OSHA letter defining the requirements of the implementation of SIS systems
		Initiating Events of Safety Instrumented Systems
	The difference between BPCS and SIS systems
		IEC 61508 mandatory and guidelines
	SIF and SIL
		Risk analysis and protection layers
	Designing a SIS System
		SIL (Safety Integrity Level) – Unit for Functional Safety
		SFF – Safe Failure Fraction
		Probability of Failures on Demand (PFD)
		Probability of Failures per Hour (PFH)
		SIL Capability and Safety System
		SIF (Safety Instrumented Function)
		A typical P&ID of the (SIF) Instrumentation
		Voting or (Polling of the System)
			A typical voting system and its instrumentation for the above P&ID
			Types of Voting (X out of X)
		Voting Probabilities
	The SIS calculations
		Quantification of Reliability in almost absolute terms
		Failure Models – The Bathtub Curve
		Reliability Laws
			Improving the reliability of a measurement system
		Safety Integrity Level (SIL) and Availability
			Sample of SIL Evaluation
	Metrics used in the reliability engineering field involving SIS
		2. MTTR = Mean Time to Repair
		3. MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures
		4. Availability A(t) and Unavailability U(t)
		5. Probability of Failure on Demand (PFDavg) and Periodic Test and inspection
		SIS Calculations - worked example
			Calculating PFD (Probability of Failure on Demand)
			Calculating MTTF (Mean Time to Failure) based on failure rates…
			Calculating MTBF based on failures
	SIS & SIL – worked examples
	Recommended SIS Study Material
	Excerpts from Process Safebook 1 – Rockwell Automation
Overview of NEC / NFPA and Other Codes
	CFR (Federal Government) Public Safety Standards of the United States
	List of NFPA codes (be familiar with these codes)
	NFPA 70 – NEC (National Electrical Code)
		Voltage Drop Calculations
			Substitute specific resistance (k) for resistance (R) of wire
			Wire and cable sizing formulas for voltage drop
		Voltage drop calculations – worked examples
		NEC Article 500 Explosion Proof Installations
		Class I Hazardous Location NEC Article 501
			Class I Location Definition
			Class I Division Definitions
			Class I Group Definitions
			Class I Temperature Definition
		Class II Hazardous Location NEC Article 502
			Class II Location Definition
			Class II Division Definitions
			Class II Group Definitions
			Class II Temperature Class
		Class III Hazardous Location NEC Article 503
			Class III Location Definition
			Class III Division Definitions
			Class III Group Definitions
		Use of Zone Classifications
			Classification Comparison (Zone/Division) for a Class I Location
			Group Comparison (Zone/ Division) for a Class I Location
			Protection Methods Comparison Class
		Designation of NEC/CEC Classification
			Hazardous Location Classification
		Summary the various hazardous (classified) locations.
		Hazardous Location Wiring Methods
		Purged and pressurized systems
		Intrinsically safe systems
			Zener diode barrier (configurations)
				Conventional passive IS Zener barriers
				Active (powered) IS isolation barriers
	NEC Article 409 and UL 508A
		What is NEC 409 and UL 508A?
		SCCR (Short-circuit current rating) of industrial control panels
		Components in the power circuit
		SCCR calculations – worked examples
	NEC Articles for Remote Control and Signaling
		Article Categories
		Cabling Installations and Applications (Types and Ratings)
		Cables Selection for Installation per NEC Code
		Article 725 - Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, Remote-control Circuits
		Power sources
		Class 1 methods and materials
		Class 2 and Class 3 methods and materials
		Article 800 - Communications Circuits
		Examples of Article 725, 727 and 800 in instrumentation and controls
	NEMA Electrical Enclosures Types and Uses
		Non-hazardous location NEMA enclosure types
		Table 10 – Indoor Nonhazardous Locations
		Table 11 - Outdoor Nonhazardous Locations
		Table 12 - Hazardous Locations
			Temperature Rise Calculation
	NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety
		What is NFPA 70E?
		What is Arc Flash
		Approach / Protection Boundaries
		Arc Flash Analysis
		Required Arc Flash Warning Label
	NFPA 77 Static Electricity
		1.2 Purpose
		8.1 General overview
		8.3.1 Charge generation
		G.1 Grounding diagrams
	NFPA 780 Lightning Protection (formerly NFPA 78)
		NFPA 780 and NFPA 70 (NEC)
			Strike-termination devices
			Connecting conductors to electrodes
			Routing down conductors
			Conductor and electrode connection
			Earth-grounding electrodes
		Summary of lightning protection components
			Air terminal height
			Conductor bends
		Conductor size and material
		Transient Protection from Lightning Strikes
	NFPA 79 Industrial Machinery
		Conductor sizing
		Conductor colors
		Pushbutton functions for color
		Colors for Machine Indicator Lights and Icons Table 10.3.2
	NFPA 496 Purged and Pressurized Systems
		Overview of the NFPA 496 articles
		Factors to consider (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-3)
		Location of the control room (NFPA 496, Secs. 5-3.1(c) and 5-3.2)
		Positive pressure air systems (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.1)
		Type X equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.4)
		Type Y equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.5)
		Type Z equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 5-4.5)
		Examples of Purged and Pressurized Systems
		Basic design of purged enclosures
		Basic design of purged buildings
	40 CFR & EPA - LDAR
		The Clean Air Act (CAA)
		What the Law Requires
Putting It All Together
	Define the Scope of the Plant
	Define the Control Systems Architecture
	Some Typical Large DCS Architectures
	More on DCS Cabinets and I/O Distribution
	Distributing the Power and Control
	Routing the Cable Trays
	Choose the Wiring Method
	Field Distribution Systems
		Class I, Division 2 Installations
		Class I, Division 1 Installations
		Modular Wiring Distribution Systems
	Instrument Air Supply and Pneumatic Tubing
		Instrument Air Consumption
		Compressor Types
		Piping System and Manifold
			Air Pipe Header
			Pneumatic Tubing
			Air Distribution Manifold (Header)
			Routing of Pneumatic Tubing
	Heat Tracing Systems
		Electric Heat Tracing
		Steam Heat Tracing
		Free Heat Tracing Software
	Determine Scope of Design
		Electrical Scope
		Instrumentation and Mechanical Scope
		Design of Electrical Plans
		Sample of a possible design for the control network and communications in plant
		Sample of a possible plan for routing of cable tray and conduit in plant
		Sample of a possible layout for a MCC building with medium voltage switchgear installed
		Sample of a possible one line electrical diagram for the low voltage in the MCC building
		Sample of a possible ladder diagram for the control of an Allen Bradley frequency drive
		Sample of a possible electrical field wiring diagram for the frequency drive
		Sample of a possible electrical field wiring diagram for routing the analog instruments to the DCS
	Locations of Instruments and Piping Design
		Finding the location of an instrument in a plant
Useful Equations for Pumping, Piping and Sizing Valves
	Find pipe diameter with velocity of flow known
	Find flow velocity with pipe diameter known
	Find pipe diameter with temperature and pressure correction
	Find flow velocity with temperature and pressure correction
	Find the Reynolds Number for the flow
	Calculate the Piping Head Losses to Size a Control Valve
	Find the pump motor size (break horsepower)
		Calculating the Hydraulic Horsepower of pumps
		Calculating the Brake Horsepower of pumps
		Correct Pump Head and Flow Rate for Fluid Viscosity
	Piping Absolute Roughness Values
Applications of Pumping Systems
	Pump Basics
	Static Head
	Applying variable frequency drives to pumps to realize savings
	Pumps with variable frequency drive (VFD)
	When can you save with a VFD?
	Sizing pump head with specific gravity of the pumped fluid
	How a Piping System Works
Calculating Volume in Tanks
	Cylindrical Tanks Upright
	Cylindrical Tanks on Side
	Spherical Tanks
	Bullet Tanks
Examination Sample Questions
	Sample Questions
	Answers to Examination Sample Questions
	Explanations and Proofs of Examination Sample Questions
Preparing this Guide for the Exam
	An Avery tab template is included with this guide
	Suggested tabbing the guide
Guide to Using the Fisher Control Valve Handbook
	Important Sections to Review
	Important Pages to Tab
		Valve and materials Selection
		Actuator Sizing Methods
		Valve Sizing Methods
		Electrical Apparatus
		Engineering Data
		Piping System Applications
		Conversions and Equivalents
Appendix and Data Tables
	Table A1 - Thermocouple Table (Type J)
	Table A2 - Thermocouple Table (Type K)
	Table A3 - Thermocouple Table (Type E)
	Table A4 - Thermocouple Table (Type T)
	Table A5 - Platinum 100 Ohm RTD Table in ohms
	Table A6 - Properties of Water Specific Gravity and LBs/HR to GPM
	Table A7 - Properties of Water Specific Volume and Density
	Table A8 - Properties of Water Kinematic Viscosity centistokes
	Table A9 - Properties of Saturated Steam
	Table A10 – Valve Selection – Materials and Applications
		Valve Terms
		Selecting your Valve
		Valve Types and Descriptions
		Valve Selection Overview - Service Application Chart
		Valve Selection Detailed - Service Application Chart
		Valve Types - Advantages and Disadvantages
		Standard Control Valve Body Materials
		Valve Seat Leakage Bubbles per Minute
		Valve Trim Material Temperature Limits
		Valve Service Temperature Limits for Non-Metallic Materials
		Valve Stem Packing Friction Values (Typical)
		Valve Stem Packing Temperature – Pressure
		Valve Seating Shutoff Pressure
		Abbreviations and Terminology
	Table A11 – Properties and Sizing Cv Coefficients for Fisher ED Globe Valves
	Table A12 – Properties and Sizing Cv Coefficients for Fisher Rotary Valves
	Table A13 - Numerical Constants for Control Valve Sizing Formulas
	Table A14 – Critical Pressure & Temperature of Elements
	Table A15 – Pipe Standard Dimensions and Data
	Table A16 – NEC Wire Ampacity Table 310.16
	Table A17 – NEC Conductor Properties and Impedance
	Table A18 – NEC Full Load Motor Currents
	Table A19 – NEC Grounding and Bonding Conductors
	Table A20 - Specific Gravity and Gas Constants for Some Common Gases
	Table A21 - Specific Gravity Common Fluids
	Table A22 - The kinematic viscosity common fluids
	Table A23 - The absolute viscosity common liquids
	Table A24 - The absolute viscosity common gases
	Table A25 - Density of Elements in English and Metric Units
	Table A26 - Metric Conversion Tables
	Table A27 – Standard Conditions and Gas Laws
	Table A28 – Head Loss in Piping Systems
	Table A29 – Maximal flow velocity in pipes
	Table A30 – Pressure Vapor Chart of Common Liquids

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